How Does Trauma Impact the Nervous System?

How-Trauma-impacts-the-nervous-system
Picture of Sam Grimaldo, LMFT, LPC

Sam Grimaldo, LMFT, LPC

Sam is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist and Professional Counselor in San Antonio. He specializes in working with couples to recover from disconnection caused by trauma or addiction.

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Trauma can be a life-altering experience that impacts not only your mental and emotional wellbeing but also your body’s autonomic nervous system. People who have experienced some form of trauma often continue to suffer from physical symptoms long after the event has occurred.

Understanding how trauma affects your body’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) can help you take better care of yourself and cope more effectively with the symptoms that arise. In this blog, we’ll be discussing how trauma impacts the ANS and exploring ways to manage it for healing and recovery.

What is the Autonomic Nervous System?

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a control system that primarily acts unconsciously and regulates bodily functions, such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. It is part of the peripheral nervous system and works alongside the central nervous system to manage the complex processes required for the body to function correctly without conscious direction.

The ANS is divided into three branches:

  1. Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS): Often described as the ‘fight or flight’ system, it prepares the body to respond to stress or emergencies by increasing heart rate, directing blood flow to muscles, and releasing energy stores.
  2. Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS): Known as the ‘rest and digest’ system, it conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract.
  3. Enteric Nervous System (ENS): Often referred to as the “second brain,” the ENS governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract independently but also communicates with the CNS via the SNS and PNS.

These systems work together to maintain homeostasis, allowing the body to adapt to changes in both the internal and external environments. Trauma upsets this balance, causing the body to remain in a state of constant activation, leading to detrimental short and long-term physical and emotional outcomes. Dysfunction of the ANS can lead to various disorders, affecting the normal regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, and other vital functions.

The Role of the ANS in Trauma Response

When we encounter threats or dangerous situations, our body’s immediate response is to protect us. This protective response is largely mediated by the ANS. The SNS triggers the ‘fight or flight’ response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and adrenaline levels. Once the threat subsides, the PNS restores the body to its normal state. However, when an individual experiences trauma, this delicate balance can be disrupted.

Trauma can cause significant changes to the ANS, such as elevated heart rate, quickened breathing, and high blood pressure, even when you are not in danger. These physiological responses trigger memories and feelings of trauma, leaving you feeling anxious, scared, and overwhelmed. Over time, the body becomes exhausted, leading to a state of near-constant arousal known as hypervigilance, which is a common characteristic of PTSD.

In addition to physical responses, the ANS also plays a crucial role in emotional regulation. Trauma can impair an individual’s ability to regulate their emotions, leading to intense and often overwhelming emotional reactions. This is due to changes in the ANS that make it difficult for individuals to self-soothe and regulate their arousal levels.

Furthermore, the ANS also influences our ability to form and maintain relationships. Trauma can impact an individual’s interpersonal skills, making it difficult for them to trust others or feel safe in their presence. This is because the ANS is constantly on high alert, searching for potential threats, leading to avoidance behaviors and difficulties with social interactions.

Symptoms of ANS Dysregulation due to Trauma

Repeated traumatic experiences can also lead to ANS dysregulation. Individuals who have a history of prolonged trauma, such as childhood abuse, are more likely to have a dysregulated ANS. In such cases, the ANS alters its response to certain triggers, meaning it is more likely to overreact or not react at all. As a result, individuals may find it challenging to manage their emotions, have difficulty sleeping, and may experience chronic pain and other ailments due to long-term changes in their nervous system.

Physical symptoms of ANS dysregulation can include heart palpitations, digestive issues, and chronic fatigue. On a psychological level, individuals may experience anxiety, depression, and difficulties with concentration and sleep. These symptoms are often interconnected, creating a cycle of physical discomfort and emotional distress.

The Concept of Trauma-informed Care

Understanding the impact of trauma on the ANS is crucial for effective treatment. This approach, known as trauma-informed care, acknowledges the pervasive nature of trauma and promotes a holistic approach to healing. It emphasizes physical, psychological, and emotional safety and helps survivors rebuild a sense of control and empowerment. Trauma-informed care also recognizes the importance of creating a supportive and non-judgmental environment for survivors to share their experiences.

One key aspect of trauma-informed care is understanding how trauma affects the brain. Research has shown that traumatic experiences can cause changes in brain structure and function, particularly in the areas responsible for regulating emotions, memory processing, and stress response. These changes can lead to symptoms such as hypervigilance, dissociation, and difficulty regulating emotions.

In addition to understanding the effects of trauma on the brain and body, trauma-informed care also emphasizes the importance of building a trusting relationship between the survivor and their healthcare provider.

Treatment Approaches for Trauma-induced ANS Dysregulation

Fortunately, psychotherapy offers a compassionate and effective way to heal from trauma, which is the emotional response to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that overwhelms an individual’s ability to cope. Trauma can leave a person feeling helpless, with diminished sense of self and an inability to feel a full range of emotions and experiences. It can disrupt the normal functioning of the nervous system, leaving it in a heightened state of alert or causing it to shut down in despair. This dysregulation often results in symptoms like anxiety, irritability, mood swings, sleep disturbances, and difficulty concentrating.

Several helpful therapies can assist in rewiring and regulating the autonomic nervous system after trauma. Some of these include trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy, EMDR therapy, sensorimotor psychotherapy, and various alternative therapies such as mindfulness, acupuncture, and yoga. Engaging in these therapies under the guidance of an experienced therapist can help individuals regulate their nervous system and create a more balanced life. In some cases, medication may be necessary. It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most suitable treatment plan.

For someone currently grappling with trauma, here’s some practical advice:

  • Seek Professional Support: Reach out to a therapist who specializes in trauma. You don’t have to navigate this journey alone.
  • Establish Safety: Create a safe physical space and seek out supportive relationships that make you feel secure.
  • Self-Regulation Techniques: Engage in activities that help calm your body, like deep breathing, meditation, or gentle exercise.
  • Self-Compassion: Be kind to yourself and recognize that your reactions are normal responses to abnormal events.
  • Gradual Exposure: With the guidance of a therapist, gradually and gently confront the traumatic memories, rather than avoiding them.
  • Routine: Develop a regular routine that provides structure and predictability in your life.

Conclusion:

Remember, healing from trauma is possible, and with the right support, individuals can reclaim their sense of well-being and move towards a more balanced, fulfilling life.Trauma affects everyone differently, and how it impacts the autonomic nervous system is no different. We encourage anyone who is experiencing trauma or its aftermath to seek help.

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